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Reference examples and in-text citations

Contents

Books (including chapter in book)
Articles in printed form
Articles in electronic form
Research reports
Official documents
Conference proceedings
Reference works (encyclopedias and dictionaries)
Web sites
Social media (blogs, Facebook, Twitter)
Audiovisual media (motion pictures, videos, podcasts, television series episodes, songs, records)
Patents
Standards
Unpublished and informally published manuscripts
Other (data sets, software, mobile applications (apps), PowerPoint slides, lecture notes, brochures)

Sources by the same author and same year are alphabetized by title. Se more here.

Books

Book

Format:
Author, A. A. (Publishing year). Title. Place of publication: Publisher.

Turk, J., Graham, P., & Verhulst, F. (2007). Child and adolescent psychiatry : A developmental approach. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

In-text citation:

1-5 authors:

  • Smith (2006) states that...
  • According to an earlier study (Smith, 2006) it is argued that...
  • In 2006 Smith published a study on...

When 6 or mor authors, only note the first author, followed by et al.:

  • (Davenport et al., 2011)

See more on in-text citation here.

Book with a new edition

Format:
Author, A. A. (Publishing year). Title (edition). Place of publication: Publisher.

Carr, I., & Kidner, R. (2003). Statutes and conventions on international trade law (4th ed.). London: Cavendish.

In-text citation:

  • According to an earlier study (Carr & Kidner, 2003) ...

See more on in-text citation here.

Bok with editors

Format:
Editor, A. A. (Ed./Eds.). (Publishing year). Title. Place of publication: Publisher.

Ekström, M., Kroon, Å., & Nylund, M. (Eds.). (2006). News from the interview society. Göteborg: Nordicom.

In-text citation:

  • (Ekström, Kroon, & Nylund, 2006)

See more on in-text citation here.

Chapter in a book

Format:
Author, A. A. (Publishing year). Title of chapter. In A. A. Editor (Ed./Eds.), Title. Place of publication: Publisher.

Davidsson, P. (2007). Method challenges and opportunities in the psychological study of entrepreneurship the case of China. In J. Baum, M. Frese, & R. Baron (Eds.), The psychology of entrepreneurship (pp. 287-323). Mahwah: L. Erlbaum Associates.

Law, M., Polatajko, H., Baptiste, S., & Townsend, E. (2002). Core concepts of occupational therapy. In E. Townsed (Ed.), Enabling occupation: An occupational therapy perspective (Rev. ed., pp. 29-56). Ottowa: Canadian Association of Occupational Therapists.

In-text citation:

  • (Davidsson, 2007)
  • (Law, Polatajko, Baptiste, & Townsend, 2002)
    Note: Write the author of the chapter, not the editor of the book. The point is that the reader should be able to trace the whole reference in the alphabetical reference list.

See more on in-text citation here.

Book with an organization as author

United Nations. (1967). Increasing the production and use of edible protein: feeding the expanding world population. New York: The Committee.

In-text citation:

  • (United Nations, 1967)

See more on in-text citation here.

Book or book chapter in electronic form (e-book)

State the name of the database or web site from where the book or book chapter  was retrieved. If it is a freely available book or book chapter, give the full web address. If publication year is not available, state n.d. (=no date) instead. The hyperlink is usually not active:

Delamont, S. (2003). Feminist sociology. London: Sage Publications. Retrieved from the database Ebrary.

Environment and Regional Trade Agreements. (2007). Retrieved from the database SourceOECD.

Mackay, C. (n.d.). Howling at the moon. Retrieved from http://www.onlineoriginals.com/showitem.asp?itemID=296

In-text citation:

  • (Delamont, 2003)
  • (Environment and Regional Trade Agreements, 2007)
  • (Mackay, n.d.)

See more on in-text citation here.

Chapter in e-book

Reference is constructed in the same way as chapter in a printed book (see above) but with source information added.

Mitchell, H.W. (1913). Alcoholism and the alcoholic psychoses. In W.A. White & S.E. Jelliffe (Eds.), The modern treatment of nervous and mental diseases (Vol. 1, pp. 287-330). Retrieved from PsycBooks.

In-text citation:

  • (Mitchel, 1913)
    Note: Write the author of the chapter, not the editor of the book. The point is that the reader should be able to trace the whole reference in the alphabetical reference list.

See more on in-text citation here.

Articles

Journal article

Format:
Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Publishing year). Article title. Journal name, volume (number),pages.

Bell, V. (2005). On the critique of secular ethics: An essay with Flannery O´Connor and Hannah Arendt. Theory, Culture & Society, 22(2), 1-27.

In-text citation:

  • (Bell, 2005)

Journal article, running page numbering

Some journals do not use issue numbers, only year, volume and so-called running page numbering. This means that the first issue in a new volume of the journal starts numbering the pages from page 1 and onwards and the following issues of the same volume continue from the last page number of each preceding issue:

Format:
Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Publishing year). Article title. Journal name, volume, pages.

Blitz, C. L., & Mechanic, D. (2006). Faciliatiors and barriers to employment among individuals with psychiatric disabilities: A job coach perspective. Work, 26, 407-419.

In-text citation:

  • (Blitz & Mechanic, 2006)

See more on in-text citation here.

Journal article, more than seven authors

If  an article has up to seven authors, they are all spelled out in the reference list. If an article has more than seven authors, the first six authors are spelled out, followed by ... and then the final author:

Gilbert, D. G., McClernon, J. F., Rabinovich, N. E., Sugai, C., Plath, L. C., Asgaard, G., ... Botros, N. (2004). Effects of quitting smoking on EEG activation and attention last for more than 31 days and are more severe with stress, dependence, DRD2 A1 allele, and depressive traits. Health Psychology, 24, 225-229.

In-text citation:

  • (Gilbert et al., 2004)

See more on in-text citation here.

Newspaper article

Format:
Author, A. A. (Publishing year, date). Article title. Newspaper name, pages.

With an author, page numbering by newspaper supplement

Stuart, C. (2007, December 23). A park where faith and faithless intersect. The New York Times, p. Culture2.

In-text citation:

  • (Stuart, 2007)

See more on in-text citation here.

With no author, running page numbering

Critics right and left protest book removals. (2007, July 5). Daily News, p. 11.

In-text citation. Use a short title (or full title if it is short) enclosed in quotation marks:

  • ("Critics right", 2007)

See more on in-text citation here.

Articles in electronic form

References to articles in electronic form are constructed as articles in printed form but with access information, such as DOI number or web address, added.

Article with DOI

Many articles found in databases are assigned a digital object identifier (DOI) which creates a unique and persistent identifier. The hyperlink is usually not active.

Wenberg, S., & Thomas, J.A. (2000). The role of vision in the rehabilitation of the musculoskeletal system: Part 1. Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies, 4(4), 242-245. doi:10.1054/jbmt.2000.0189

In-text citation:

  • (Wenberg & Thomas, 2000)

See more on in-text citation here.

Article with no DOI

Give the exact URL if it is a freely accessible (open access) article. Give the URL to the journal homepage if you need a subscription to the journal in order to access the article. The hyperlink is usually not active:

Example (free access):
Wilhelm, J., Thacker, B., & Wilhelm, R. (2007). Creating Constructivist Physics for Introductory University Classes. Electronic Journal of Science Education, 11(2), 19-37. Hämtad från http://ejse.southwestern.edu/article/download/7793/5560

Example (restricted access):
Muntlin, Å., Gunningberg, L., & Carlsson, M. (2006). Patients´ perceptions of quality of care at an emergency department and identification of areas for quality improvement. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 15(8), 1045-1056. Retrieved from http://www.blackwellpublishing.com/journal.asp?ref=0962-1067&site=1

In-text citation:

  • (Wilhelm, Thacker, & Wilhelm, 2007)
  • (Muntlin, Gunningberg, & Carlsson, 2006)

See more on in-text citation here.

Preprints (pre-published articles)

For references to articles published online before they have been published in print or assigned final year, volume and number, use the phrases "Advance online publication" and DOI or "Retrieved from" and other web address. If the year cannot be stated, use the term "in press" in parentheses instead of year. The hyperlink is usually not active:  

Von Ledebur, S. C. (2007). Optimizing knowledge transfer by new employees in companies. Knowledge Management Research & Practice. Advance online publication. doi:10.1057/palgrave.kmrp.8500141

Briscoe, R. (in press). Egocentric spatial representation in action and perception. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research. Retrieved from http://cogprints.org/5780/1/ECSRAP.F07.pdf

In-text citation:

  • (Von Lederbur, 2007)
  • (Briscoe, in press)

See more on in-text citation here.

Newspaper article

Be sure to give year, month and day. The hyperlink is usually not active:

Brody, J. E. (2007, December 11). Mental reserves keep brain agile. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com

In-text citation:

  • (Brody, 2007)

See more on in-text citation here.

Research reports

Research reports are stated in the same ways as books but with the added possibility to also state any name and number of the report series. Name and number of the series are usually found on the front or back of the publication, or on the title page inside the report.

Research reports in printed form

Conway, S. & Forrester, R. (1999). Innovation and teamworking: Combining perspectives through a focus on team boundaries (Aston Business School Research paper series No. 99:5). Birmingham: Aston Buisness School Research Institute.

In-text citation:

  • (Conway & Forrester, 1999)

See more on in-text citation here.

Research reports in electronic form

It is not necessary to state place of publication when a link to the full text is available. However, you should state the publisher's (organization's) name as part of the retrieval information. The hyperlink is usually not active:

Kessy, S. S. A., & Urio, F. M. (2006). The contribution of microfinance institutions to poverty reduction in Tanzania (Research Report No. 06.3). Retrieved from Research on Poverty Alleviation: http://www.repoa.or.tz/documents_storage/Publications/Reports/06.3_Kessy_and_Urio.pdf

If the report is published in the name of an organization (corporate author), the name of the organization is stated as author. Then, the organization name is not needed in the retrieval information:

American Psychological Association, Task Force on the Sexualization of Girls. (2007). Report of the APA Task Force on the Sexualization of Girls. Retrieved from http://www.apa.org/pi/wpo/sexualization.html

In-text citation:

  • (Kessey & Urio, 2006)
  • (American Psychological Association, Task Force on the Sexualization of Girls, 2007)

See more on in-text citation here.

Official documents

SOU and Ds, Parliamentary publications, Laws, constitutions

Since the APA style guide has an American perspective it is hard to find guiding rules for referring to Swedish legal and parliamentary material. However, below are some examples on how such references could be stated.

SOU and Ds

SOU and Ds are treated like a report with an organization as author if a committee or something similar is stated clearly. Should this be missing, the report is treated like a publication with no author.

Havsmiljökommisionen. (2003). Havet: Tid för en ny strategi: Betänkande. (Statens offentliga utredningar 2003:72). Stockholm: Fritze.

Från socialbidrag till arbete: betänkande av Utredningen från socialbidrag till arbete. (2007). (Statens offentliga utredningar 2007:2). Stockholm: Fritze.

Äldres arbetsutbud och möjligheter till sysselsättning: En kunskapsöversikt. (2007). (Ds departementsserien 2007:21). Stockholm: Finansdepartementet.

In-text citation:

  • (Havsmiljökommissionen, 2003)
  • ("Från socialbidrag till arbete", 2007)

See more on in-text citation here.

Parliamentary publications

It is customary within the fields of law to use the established form of stating parliamentary publications:

Prop. 1999/2000:135. En förnyad lärarutbildning.

In-text citation:

  • (Prop. 1999/00:135)

See more on in-text citation here.

Laws, constitutions

From certain aspects, citing and referencing to legal material differs from other types of publications. In these cases APA usesThe Bluebook: A Uniform System of Citation (18th ed.). (2005). Cambridge, MA: Harvard Law Review Association.

Conference proceedings

Proceedings from conferences, meetings and symposia can be published in book or periodical form and are written in the same way as books, book chapters and articles.

Conference paper

A conference paper in a printed book (conference proceeding or anthology originating from a conference). The reference is structured in the same way as a chapter in a book:

Lambertz, G. (2004). "Honour killing" and their export to the west. In E. Modvar & P. Lødrup (Eds.), World Conference of the International Society of Family Law: Family life and human rights (pp. 417-426). Oslo: Gyldendal.

In-text citation:

  • (Lambertz, 2004)

See more on in-text citation here.

Conference publication (published on a regularly basis)

A conference paper in a conference proceedings which is published on a regularly basis. The reference is structured in the same way as a journal article:

Williams, R.W., & Goldowitz, D. (1992). Structure of clonal and polyclonal cell arrays in chimeric mouse retina. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 89, 1184-1188.

In-text citation:

  • (Williams & Goldowitz, 1992)

See more on in-text citation here.

Conference paper in electronic form

The hyperlink is usually not active:

Kadav, A. & Swift, M. M. (2008). Live migration of direct-access devices. Paper presented at the First Workshop on I/O Virtualization, San Diego, CA. Retrieved from http://www.usenix.org/events/wiov08/tech/full_papers/kadav/kadav.pdf

A conference paper in electronic form from a conference proceedings which is published on a regularly basis. In this case the article has been assigned a DOI (Digital Object Identifier):

Herculano-Houzel, S., Collins, C. E., Wong, P., Kaas, J. H., & Lent, R. (2008). The basic nonuniformity of the cerebral cortex. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, USA, 105, 12593-12598. doi:10.1073/pnas.0805417105

If the conference paper has been retrieved from a database which is not open for all you should not write the direct link to the document. The example below is from the database ERIC:

Kamii, C. (1995). Why is the use of a ruler so hard? Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the North American Chapter of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education, Columbus, OH. Retrieved from ERIC database. (ERIC No. ED389558)

In-text citation:

  • (Herculano-Houzel, Collins, Wong, Kaas, & Lent, 2008)

See more on in-text citation here.

Reference works (encyclopedias and dictionaries)

If an entry does not have an author, the title of the entry is placed in the author's place.

For web based reference publications, state the date of retrieval, since contents may be changed over time. Link to the homepage or start page of the reference publication.

Reference work

A reference book with clearly stated editor(s):

VandenBos, G. R. (Ed.). (2007). APA dictionary of psychology. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

New editions and if the work consists of several volumes should be stated:

Taparia, N. (Ed.). (2000). Columbia encyclopedia (2nd ed., Vols. 1-45). Chicago: Columbia Press.

In-text citation:

  • (VandenBos, 2007)

See more on in-text citation here.

Reference work entry (with author)

Treat these references as chapters in books (above). If an entry has one or several authors, they should be stated. Add web address if it is an online source. The following example is structured like a chapter in a book. The hyperlink is usually not active:

Graham, G. (2005). Behaviorism. In E. N. Zalta (Ed.), The Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy (Fall 2010 ed.). Retrieved from http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/behaviorism/

In-text citation:

  • (Graham, 2005)

See more on in-text citation here.

Reference work entry (with no author or editor)

If an entry has no author, state the entry word first. Add web address if it is an online source (see example above). The hyperlink is usually not active:

Behaviourism. (1986). In The new Encyclopædia Britannica (15th ed.).

If no date can be given, write n.d. (= no date) in parenthesis:

Heuristic. (n.d.). In Merriam-Webster's online dictionary (11th ed.). Retrieved from http://www.m-w.com/dictionary/heuristic

In-text citation:

  • (Behaviourism, 1986)
  • (Heuristic, n.d.)

See more on in-text citation here.

Wikipedia

Entries in Wikipedia are usually of uncertain date, therefore use n.d. (= no date) in parenthesis and retrieval date. The hyperlink is usually not active:

Pancreas. (n.d.). In Wikipedia. Retrieved December 27, 2011, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pancreas

In-text citation:

  • (Pancreas, n.d.)

See more on in-text citation here.

Web sites

If there is an author to the web article or page, he/she should be stated as such. If there is no author stated but there is an organization behind the web site, the organization name should be given as author (corporate author). If no date is available on the web site, use n.d. (=no date) in parentheses instead of year. Since web site content might be edited from time to time, it is very important to state the retrieval date. The hyperlink is usually not active:

World Trade Organization. (2012). About the WTO - a statement by the Director-General. Retrieved January 3, 2012, from http://www.wto.org/english/thewto_e/whatis_e/wto_dg_stat_e.htm

Nicholson, J. (n.d.). APA writing style assistance and grammar pearls. Retrieved February 16, 2009, from http://userwww.sfsu.edu/~jnichols/APA-Style.htm

In-text citation:

  • (World Trade Organization, 2012)
  • (Nicholson, n.d.)

See more on in-text citation here.

Social media

Some of the examples below, like Facebook and Twitter, are not included in the latest APA style manual, but suggestions are given on how to construct them. Social media, which includes blogs, Facebook and Twitter posts, are usually not archived for posterity. With this last point in mind, it is a good idea to self-archive this kind of documents, in print or digitally, if you are using them as source material for a paper. Remember that the main point is to be clear and make your sources retrievable.

  • If a blog, Facebook or Twitter author uses her/his full name, this is treated as in ordinary references, i.e. last name followed by personal name initials.
  • If the author uses a nickname (screen name), or if it is a descriptive (concerning a particular interest, for instance) rather than personal name, this is used as it is spelled out instead.
  • Use the first sentence of the post or, if it is very long, a truncated version of it.
  • Title of posts should not be in italics.
  • State document type in square brackets.
  • Give the full link, which is obtained by clicking the date and time stamp beneath the post (on the same row as the like, comment and share options), or copying its link location.

Blog post and blog comment

Write the author name or author nickname, followed by year, month and day of entry. Also state document type in square brackets. The hyperlink is usually not active:

Rosenhouse, J. (2011, December 17). What is scientism? [Web log post]. Retrieved from http://scienceblogs.com/evolutionblog/2011/12/what_is_scientism.php

In a comment to the post above the author in this example uses a nickname:

Owlmirror. (2011, December 26). Re: What is scientism? [Web log post]. Retrieved from http://scienceblogs.com/evolutionblog/2011/12/what_is_scientism.php

In-text citation:

  • (Rosenhouse, 2011)
  • (Owlmirror, 2011)

See more on in-text citation here.

Facebook, fan page

The APA style manual does not give any guidance on how to construct Facebook references. In the meantime, before any guidelines are created by APA, here are some suggestions on how to construct such references, partly taken from the APA Style Blog.

Obama, B. (2011, December 31). President Obama and First Lady Michelle Obama wish you a merry Christmas... [Facebook update] . Retrieved from http://www.facebook.com/barackobama/posts/219004581513098

In-text citation:

  • (Obama, 2011)

See more on in-text citation here.

Facebook, private page

Facebook pages that are private or for friends only cannot be retrieved by everyone and should therefore be treated like personal communication and only cited in the text of the document.

Twitter

Construct Twitter posts in the same way as Facebook posts (see above). The hyperlink is usually not active:

ScienceNewsOrg. (2011, January 2). Help on schoolwork in the New Year: use the rich archives of science journalism found on Science News for Kids. http://ow.ly/8fISp [Twitter post]. Retrieved from https://twitter.com/#!/ScienceNewsOrg/status/153882443680714753

In-text citation:

  • (ScienceNewsOrg, 2011)

See more on in-text citation here.

Audiovisual media

Audiovisual media incorporates motion pictures, radio and television broadcasts, podcasts, static objects like maps, artwork, and photos.

Motion picture

Use descriptions of main entries (main contributors), such as producer and/or director.

Format:
Producer, A. A. (Producer), & Director, B. B. (Director). (Year). Title of motion picture [Motion picture]. Country of origin: Studio.

Grazer, B. (Producer), & Howard, R. (Director). (2001). A beautiful mind [Motion picture]. USA: Universal Studios.

In-text citation:

  • (Grazer & Howard, 2001)

See more on in-text citation here.

Video

This includes, for example, instructional and educational videos. Use descriptions of main entry (main contributor), such as producer. A producer may be an organization. If a work is available from a web site, a link to this site should be given. The hyperlink is usually not active:

Format:
Producer (Producer). (Year). Title of video [Medium of recording: DVD, videocassette etc.]. Available from link.

American Psychological Association (Producer). (2000). Responding therapeutically to patient expressions of sexual attraction [DVD]. Available from http://www.apa.org/videos/

In-text citation:

  • (American Psychological Association, 2000)

See more on in-text citation here.

News reports

The title of the news report video is moved to author position, in italics, followed by description of medium ([Video file]) and, like newspaper articles, year and date. The reference ends with a link to the video:

Title of news report [Medium]. (Year and date). Retrieved from http://link name

The daring message hidden on Hong Kong's tallest skyscraper [Video file]. (2016, May 19). Retrieved from http://edition.cnn.com/2016/05/18/travel/hong-kong-international-commerce-center-hidden-message/index.html

In-text citation includes title in abbreviated form and within quotation marks:

  • ("The daring message", 2016)

See more on in-text citation here.

Single episodes from a television series

Main entries are constructed in the same way as motion pictures (see above). Use descriptions like writer and director. The whole reference is constructed in the same way as a chapter in a book. Use appropriate description in square brackets.

Format:
Writer, A. A. (Writer), & Director, B. B. (Director). (Year). Episode title [Television series episode]. In A. Producent (Executive producer), Name of television series. Location: Television or media company.

Example:
Egan, D. (Writer), & Alexander, J. (Director). (2005). Failure to communicate [Television series episode]. In D. Shore (Executive producer), House. New York, NY: Fox Broadcasting.

In-text citation:

  • (Egan & Alexander, 2005)

See more on in-text citation here.

Podcast

State producer as main entry. Write year, month and day in square brackets. Give appropriate media description in square brackets, such as audio podcast or video podcast. Add link to website. The hyperlink is usually not active:

Format:
Producer, A. A. (Producer). (Year, month and day). Title of podcast [Medium]. Retrieved from http:// ...

Example:
Van Nuys, D. (Producer). (2007, December 19). Shrink rap radio [Audio podcast]. Retrieved from http://www.shrinkrapradion.com/

In-text citation:

  • (Van Nuys, 2007)

See more on in-text citation here.

Music recording, single song

As main entry, state the name of the person or persons who have written the piece of music, and not the one who has recorded it. If some one else other than the originator has recorded it, this is stated in square brackets. If the recording year is not the same as the main entry year, this is stated last in parantheses. The whole reference is constructed in the same way as a chapter in a book.

Format:
Writer, A. A. (Copyright year). Title of song [Recorded by B. B. Artist if different from writer]. On Title of album [Medium of recording: CD, LP, cassette, MP3 etc.]. Location: Label. (Year of recording if different from song copyright year)

Example:
Song writer and artist is the same person:
Lang, K. D. (2008). Shadow and the frame. On Watershed [CD]. New York, NY: Nonesuch Records.

Song writer and performing artist are not the same:
Jagger, M., & Richards, K. (1969). Gimme shelter [Recorded by av P. Smith]. On Twelve [CD]. New York, NY: Columbia. (2007)

In-text citation:

  • (Lang, 2008)
  • (Jagger & Richards, 1969)

See more on in-text citation here.

Music recording, whole album

In the latest edition of APA's style manual, this type of reference is not included. But according to APA's facebook pages, such a reference can be constructed in the following way:

Format:
Artist. (Copyright year). Title of album [Medium of recording: CD, LP, cassette, MP3 etc.]. Location: Label. (Year of recording if different from copyright year)

Example:
The following example is a CD issue of a record recorded earlier:
Pink Floyd. (1987). The wall [CD]. New York, NY: Sony/Columbia. (Original work published 1979)

In-text citation:

  • (Pink Floyd, 1987)

See more on in-text citation here.

Unpublished and informally published manuscripts

This type consists of works in progress, submitted to publisher for publication or works that are finished but have not yet been submitted for publication. This category also includes works that have not been formally published but are available on personal or institutional web sites. Web address is stated when the document is retrieved from the Internet. The hyperlink is usually not active:

Format:
Author, A. A. (year). Title. Unpublished manuscript [alternatively "Manuscript submitted for publication" or "Manuscript in progress" etc.]. Retrieved from http:// ...

Example:
Limberg, L. (2008). Bibliotek och lärande: en het kombination. Unpublished manuscript. Retrieved from http://grupper.bf.dk/bibundervis/artikler/Bibliotek-och-laerande.doc

In-text citation:

  • (Limberg, 2008)

See more on in-text citation here.

Unpublished manuscript with university affiliation

It is a very good idea to state a university or organizational affiliation when this is stated in the document. Web address is given when the document is retrieved from the Internet.

Blackwell, E., & Conrod, P. J. (2003). A five-dimensional measure of drinking motives. Unpublished manuscript, Department of Psychology, University of British Colombia, Vancouver, Canada.

In-text citation:

  • (Blackwell & Conrod, 2003)

See more on in-text citation here.

Manuscript in progress or submitted for publication

If the year is not known, n.d. (= no date) is given in parenthesis instead.  Web address is given when the document is retrieved from the Internet.

Smith, J. (n.d.). Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet. Manuscript in progress.

Dahlqvist, J. (2007). The market newness of new ventures. Manuscript submitted for publication.

In-text citation:

  • (Smith, n.d.)
  • (Dahlqvist, 2007)

See more on in-text citation here.

Patents

Write the inventors' names as entry in the reference list. Add the publication year (also issue date) of the patent, not the filing date. If you have found the patent in a database, the name of the database should be stated.

Format:
Inventor. (Publication year). Patent number. Retrieved from Database name.

Example:
Appleman, B. (2013). US20130091434 A1. Retrieved from Google Patents.

In-text citation:

Please note! According to the Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (6. ed., p. 224), the in-text citing should state the patent number, not the entry (inventor's name):

  • (US20130091434 A1, 2013)

See more on in-text citation here.

Standards

Write the name of the standardisation organization in its full form. The publisher is often the same as the standardisation organization.

Format: Standardisation Organization. (year). Number of standard: Title of standard. Place of publication: Publisher.

Examples:

International Organization for Standardization. (1992). ISO 9000: International standards for quality management. Genève, Switzerland: International Organization for Standardization.

British Standards Institute. (2002). BS EN ISO 11623: Transportable gas cylinders: periodic inspection and testing of composite gas cylinders. London: BSI.

In-text citation:

  • (International Organization for Standardization, 1992)

See more on in-text citation here.

Other

Data set

Write the data provider and year and italicize the title of the data set. Also state a suitable document type description in square brackets. The hyperlink is usually not active:

Pew Hispanic Center. (2004). Changing channels and crisscrossing cultures: A survey of Latinos on the news media [Data file and code book]. Retrieved from http://pewhispanic.org/datasets/

In-text citation:

  • (Pew Hispanic Center, 2004)

See more on in-text citation here.

Software

Please note: You do not have to write reference entries for standard software and programming languages, such as Microsoft Excel or Word, Java, Adobe Photoshop or SPSS. State description in square brackets. Also, state place and producer of software. The hyperlink is usually not active:

Miller, M. E. (1993). The interactive tester (Version 4.0) [Computer software]. Westminster, CA: Psytek Services.

If it is available on the web, state the URL instead of place and producer:

St. James, J., Schneider, W., & Eschman, A. (2003). PsychMate Student Guide (Version 2.0) [Software]. Available from Psychology Software Tools: http://www.pstnet.com/products/PsychMate/default.htm

In-text citation:

  • (Miller, 1993)
  • (St. James, Schneider, & Eschman, 2003)

See more on in-text citation here.

Mobile applications (apps)

Write the rightsholder, which stands for either an individual or corporate author of the software, followed by year, title of software, version number, description of form and from where you have got it. The hyperlink is usually not active:

Rightsholder, A. A. (year). Title of Software or Program (Version number) [Description of form]. Retrieved from http://xxx

Skyscape. (2013). Skyscape Medical Resources (Version 1.17.42) [Mobile application software]. Retrieved from http://itunes.apple.com

Note: Apps on the Android platform would have an address like: https://play.google.com/store/apps

In-text citation:

  • (Skyscape, 2013)

See more on in-text citation here.

PowerPoint slide presentation

Write type of lecture presentation (PowerPoint slides or any other similar kind of presentation) in square brackets. Since contents may be edited, it is a good idea to state retrieval date. The hyperlink is usually not active:

Gunnarsson, D. (2011). Introduction to business creation [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved December 2, 2011, from http://lgdata.s3-website-us-east-1.amazonaws.com/docs/159/284847/Intro_Bus_creation_11.pps

In-text citation:

  • (Gunnarsson, 2011)

See more on in-text citation here.

Lecture notes

Lecture notes belong to the category personal communication and are not included in the reference list.

Brochure

Reference is constructed by stating an author or organization name and title together with a suitable publication type description in square brackets, such as Brochure or Fact sheet. If no year can be stated, n.d. (=no date) is used instead of year. Write the web address if the publication can be found online. The hyperlink is usually not active:

Organization name or author name. (publishing year). Title [Brochure].

Jönköping University Library. (2011). The university library: Getting started! [Brochure].

Jönköping International Business School. (n.d.). International at heart, entrepreneurial in mind [Brochure].

California Board of Psychology. (2005). For your peace of mind: A consumer guide to psychological services [Brochure]. Retrieved from http://www.psychboard.ca.gov/pubs/consumer-brochure.pdf

In-text citation:

  • (Jönköping University Library, 2011)
  • (Jönköping International Business School, n.d.)
  • (California Board of Psychology, 2005)

See more on in-text citation here.

Content updated 2016-11-10

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