The IEEE style is created by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers and is used by engineers, especially within computer science and electro technology.
In the text, references are indicated by numbers within square brackets in the order in which they appear in the text. If one and the same reference is used several times it is indicated with the same number asthe first time it was used.
If a specific passage in the source is cited, page numbers are stated within the square brackets, after the cited source number.
The vision of the semantic web was first conceived by Tim Berners-Lee . One of the main points was that information on the web should not only be able to be read by humans but machines as well -. When machines are able to communicate with other machines new possibilities for information management are created. In his vision [1, s. 3-4], Berners-Lee talks about how e-commerce, for instance, has much to gain by applying the principles of the semantic web. One of the prerequisites for this vision to come true is that information are coded according to standards agreed upon , .
When citing personal communication, such as conversations, letters and interviews, no citation numbers are necessary. Such material is not included in the reference list either. Instead, citations are made like this: "In a personal interview Tim Berners-Lee asserts that ...".
The reference list is placed last in the document and shall list all (published) material used in the work. Background material or further reading material not cited in the text is not included.
In the tutorial from Murdoch University Library, How To Cite References - IEEE Style, more publication types are described.
[#] A. A. Author/Editor, Title: Subttitle, Edition (if not the first), Vol. (if a multivolume work). Place of publication: Publisher, Year, page number(s) (if appopriate).
Note: Each significant word in the title must be capitalised. Only the first word of the subtitle should be capitalised.
 K. K. Breitman, M. A. Casanova och W. Truszkowski, Semantic Web: Concepts, technologies and applications. London: Springer, 2007.
Book in new edition
 G. Garner, Careers in Engineering, 3 ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2009.
Book with editor (anthology)
 H. A. ElMaraghy, Ed., Changeable and Reconfigurable Manufacturing Systems. London: Springer, 2009.
If you want to refer to a specific part of an edited book (N.B.! See example under "Chapter in edited book" below if it regards a specific chapter with a given author):
 M. Abramowitz and I. A. Stegun, Eds., Handbook of Mathematical Functions (Applied Mathematics Series 55). Washington, DC: NBS, 1964, pp. 32-33.
Book with corporate author
 Microsoft Corporation, MCSE training kit Microsoft SQL Server 2000 database design and implementation. Redmond: Microsoft Press, 2001.
[#] A. A. Author, "Title of chapter," in Title: Subtitle, Edition (if not the first), Vol. (if a multivolume work), Editor, Ed. Place of publication: Publisher, Year, page number(s).
Note: Capitalize only the first letter of the title of the chapter.
Chapter in edited book
 W. Terkaj, T. Tolio och A. Valente, "Focused flexibility in production Systems," in Changeable and Reconfigurable Manufacturing Systems, H. A. ElMaraghy, Ed. London: Springer, 2009. pp. 47-66.
The same principle principles are applied to e-books as those for printed books, but the database name should be added last in the reference.
[#] A. A. Author/Editor, Title: Subtitle, Edition (if not the first), Vol. (if a multivolume work). Utgivningsort: Place of publication: Publisher, Year, page number(s) (if appropriate). [E-book] Available: Database Name.
E-book (from e-book database)
 R. Lerdorf, P. MacIntyre and K. Tatroe, Programming PHP, 2nd ed. Sebastopol: O'Reilly, 2006. [E-book] Available: Safari Books Online.
[#] A. A. Author of article, "Title of article," Title of Journal, vol. #, no #, pp. page number(s), Month year.
Note: Only the first word of the article title should be capitalised. Each significant word in the journal title must be capitalised.
 Y. Zhong, B. Shirinzadeha, G. Alicib and J. Smith, "An autowave based methodology for deformable object simulation," Computer-Aided Design, vol. 38, no 7, pp. 740-754, July 2006.
Journal article, more than six authors
 L. Yia et al., "P-smart—a virtual system for clothing thermal functional design," Computer-Aided Design, vol. 38, no 7, pp. 740-754, July 2006.
The same principle principles are applied to e-journal articles as those for printed articles, but database name and access date should be added last in the reference.
[#] A. A. Author of article, "Title of article," Title of Journal, vol. #, no #, pp. page number(s), Month year. [Online] Available: Database Name, internet address. [Accessed: date of access].
Article in e-journal
 M. Cieslak, "Life cycle costs of pumping stations," World Pumps, vol. 2008, no 505, pp. 30-33, October 2008 [Online] Available: ScienceDirect, http://www.sciencedirect.com. [Accessed: Mars 13, 2009].
[#] A. A. Author, "Document title," Webpage name, Date of internet publication. [Format] Available: internet address. [Accessed: Date of access].
Web page of organization/company
 European Telecommunications Standards Institute, “Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB): Implementation guidelines for DVB terrestrial services; transmission aspects," European Telecommunications Standards Institute, ETSI TR-101-190, 1997. [Online]. Available: http://www.etsi.org. [Accessed: Aug. 17, 1998].
Content updated 2016-02-01