In the running text, the author's last name and publishing year are noted, so that the reader can identify the source and find the complete information in the alphabetical reference list. If the author's name is included in the text, it is excluded from the information within the parentheses.
If you refer to a specific page, chapter or quote, this should be stated within the paranthesis. Se examples under the heading Referring to parts in other works below.
(last name, year)
Always state both names.
State all names at the first occasion. In the following citations only the first author is stated, followed by et al. This is an abbreviation of the latin phrase et alii, which means "among others".
The first citation
The subsequent occasions of the same reference:
Only note the first author, followed by et al.
Note that in the running text, "and" is used between the authors' names, but within parentheses the &-symbol is used.
In order to separate works published by the same author and same year, a letter next to the year is added. Add a, b, and c etc. in the same way as the references are alphabetized in the reference list. In the reference list works by the same author with the same year are alphabetized by title.
If you use n.d. (no date), a hyphen is used in the following way:
Sometimes corporations, authorities, organizations and such are publishing material that are not the words of a specific author. These organizations etc. are noted in their full form each time they are cited. Organizations that are mostly known by their abbreviated acronyms are stated with the acronym within square brackets the first time. On the following occasions, only the acronym is used. In the reference list the full form of the name of the organization is noted.
The first occasion
The following occasions
Publications without any authors are noted in the running text by using the first words of the publication name used as entry in the reference list. It is usually the title. Use quotation marks around the title of an article or a book chapter. Note the title of a periodical, book, brochure or report in italics.
If the reference list includes two or more authors with the same last name, you have to separate them by noting first name initials in the running text.
If you refer to several works at the same occasion, they are stated in alphabetical order by author and then in chronological order. Semicolons are used between each reference.
You should as far as possible avoid to cite material that is cited in the source you are using but that you did not read yourself. According to the rules of APA you give the secondary source in the reference list and in your text you name the original work and give citation to the secondary (the one that you have read).
A web sites is cited in accordance with how the reference in the reference list is constructed. Usually, an organization is behind the web site, so therefore the citation should be made with the organization as an author (see 'Organizations as authors' above).
If an entry in an encyclopedia or dictionary is sorted under the entry word in the reference list rather than than author (se example here), the entry word should be cited in text:
In this category you will find material which is not communicated via formal channels - letters, e-mails, interviews, telephone calls, lecture notes etc. This material should be stated in the running text but should not be included in the reference list. Note the exact date of communication, surname and, if possible, the personal name initials.
If you are referring to a part in a certain work, it has to be clearly stated.
Direct quotations must be verbatim (word-for-word). Short quotations with less than 40 words (or approx. 1-3 lines) are included directly in the running text with quotation marks. Longer quotations are indented and double-spaced, but without quotation marks.
Content updated 2017-03-01