A detailed state of the art is necessary to understand how knowledge from successful grain refinements procedure in lab scale can be transferred to pilot and full-scale in terms of the necessary criteria that has been successfully utilized in aluminium alloys into steel casting.

As mentioned above carbides are the most efficient particles for grain refinement but not practical to use in production. Improving the quality of the primary deoxidation using the

SPAL technique is to be investigated to reduce reoxidation in order to achieve an optimal predeoxidation before the final late deoxidation to generate the optimum number and type of oxide to act as nucleants. This requires equilibrium thermodynamics for the predeoxidation but foremost a kinetics description to quantify the particle generation as well as to control the size, wetting and clustering of the particles.

The effectiveness of the nucleation as well as understanding secondary effects on post casting treatments are important for final material properties and finished component performance.

Special emphasis will in the study will be put on the following areas:

  • Nucleation
  • Growth restriction
  • Inclusion interaction with solidifying materials
  • Subsequent interaction in solid state during heat treatment and grain boundary immobilization